Uttarakhand and Waiting Mountains



Today’s Uttrakhand faces euphoric concept called Migration. We usually keep on listening debates on news channels about Uttrakhand Migration and politician waffling about how to curb Migration. While retrograding my Professor opinion on both side migrations accruing our state, Uttrakhand is on serious call to applaud devil and dissent with serenity. My last 22 days visit to Uttrakashi District for field survey left with some of intriguing issues and facts about future of Uttrakhandies. Well it’s so astonishing that neither a state  nor centre government had ponder how to stabilised migration, instead of their political agenda, on the serious note Uttrakhand is glittering on the hand of mafia’s and human traders.This paper revel about the sorrow state of Uttarakhand Migration, this report also ponder upon whether migration should be considered as problem or a global phenomena which is unstoppable, This report provide same suggestion due to which government can cartel 60 per cent of its migration and migratory pattern. 



Table 1

Select Demographic Features of Uttarakhand and India, 2011

Sl. Variable         Uttarakhand   India
No.             Hill Plain areas Total  
1. Population (in millions)   48.50 52.36 100.86 1210.8
2. 0-6 years population (%)   13.18 13.68 13.44 13.60
3. Population growth rate (2001- 0.70 2.82 1.74 1.64
4. Sex ratio (all age groups) 1037 900 963 943
5. Sex ratio (0-6 age group)   894 888 890 919
6. SC population (%)     20.91 16.78 18.76 16.6
7. ST population (%)     1.05 4.60 2.89 8.6
8. % Urban population     17.06 42.43 30.23 31.2
9. Growth  in urban population 2.43 3.81 3.42 2.80
10. Literacy Rate (%)     80.87 76.90 78.82 73.0
11. % Workers (main plus 43.71 33.47 38.39 39.8
  marginal) in total population        
12. WPR- Male       48.32 50.84 49.67 53.3
13 WPR-Female       39.26 14.16 26.68 25.5


Source: Calculated from Primary Census Abstract, India and Uttarakhand, 2011




Migratory Pattern and Migration:


Migration is mellow dramatic politics of Uttrakhand number of politicians waffling about migration and their impact and even demonstrates their plan to halt migration and advocates for reverse migration, but pragmatically reverse migration is same as “cultivating sugar cane in desert”. Before starting to write about migration and its adverse impact, the very notion we all should ponder that whether migration is a problem or a trend of globalisation, which is indispensable and unstoppable, does cause of migration are similar in entire Uttrakhand or dependent on three basic foundations like education, health and employment, is debacle. This report will future discusses many other factors of migration. Due to variations in geographical terrains Uttrakhand do not have similar factors affecting migration and its causes, it has been observed that Uttrakhand possess different factors causing migration in different parts of Uttrakhand, which implies that Uttrakhand need different policies to tackles with factors causing migration along with different regions of Uttrakhand. There are some factors which have been identified while my field visit, they are as following:


1.Education Migration:


Education is the most pertinent tool to re-shape not only individual future but also decides modernity of future. Government have started mid day meal and free assistance to the poor families to augment number of students in classes, we have seen status of primary education though have gained some strength but still majority of students fails to have accessibility of higher education and field of innovation. Tangling issue faced by the Garhwal students is to whether or not attend the classes in different weathers because they have to travel more than five to seven kilometres every day for their classes. Rest of the students somehow managed them self’s to settle in Uttrakashi for higher education, for different coaching classes to prepare for future studies. Due to lack of proper higher education institution students have to migrate to different district and states which can be called as Education Migration.



2. Health Migration:


Health is another trembling issue faced by the Garhwalies (people living in Grahwal). While taking interviews of villagers they keep on recounter about flash flood and landslides due to which not only villagers get injured but also their cattle’s, many of the incidence happened in the past where villagers get injured while landslides and cloud bust they have to rush hospital but due to any primary bandage victim have to lose their last breath. While collecting sample for different villages and blocks not a single village had blessed with Primary health centres (PHC) fortunately if some village have one, that do not posses a single doctors with absence of availability of medicines. Government “Janani Suraksha” scheme have shown some hope for betterment, under this scheme. Pregnant women can call for 108 (Ambulance help line) Ambulance picks and drop women and her ward to her village without any monetary charges, government hospital also pays 1400 rupees to the women after getting delivery of her child. Bhattwadi and Dunda blocks of villagers have to dependent on Uttrakashi government hospital for the medical aid and have to face crunch of availability of good doctors, many of the villages even do not have road connectivity due to which pregnant women and patients have lifted by human poachers to the reach native village which have road connectivity, (it was hard to imagine how to poach a pregnant women in those vertical muddy and bumpy path).The another Blocks Purola and Nauguan village have dependency on the Badkot villages which have some medical facility with lack of availability of good doctors, failure of dependence on these reason hospital people have to rush Dehradun for better health. These all condition and circumstances impede villagers to permanently settle in villages. They also migrate for the better health because their appointments with doctors waiting fare in Dehradun or Rishikesh.


3. Employment Migration:


Employment is another pertinent toll to curb out migration. While investigating it was observed that number of household either dependent on the agriculture or grace of MGNREGA guarantee employment scheme. It has been observed that all the Gram Pradhans (excluding one of them) are playing thick money making game while generating employment of the villagers. Pradhans fails to provide employment more than 20 days and that to without any wages for their work. The number of villagers has dependency to the private contraction happing in their village or in the native villages because process of wages payment in MGNREGA is too late and complex every blog officer blame for payment incompetency to some other officer (senior or junior designation). Not even private construction but also government guaranteed employment scheme does not have consistency in work and wages, due to which villagers have to move out from their town and district to the search of better work and greater possibility. This further ignites the migration of villagers.


4. Agricultural Migration:


The majority of villagers are proletariat and regularly do farming in every seasons, not for selling their agric products but for their self consumption because majority of population had to dependent on the government rationing. This is because due to flash floods, hail stormed, landslides and wild animals, villagers had to lose their fertile land which was eroded by these natural calamities every years and still getting eroded, this has actually reduce the number of percentage of land holding of the villagers, those who used to plunge their own field now have to dependent on others land and working with them not for wages but for a small share of the ration.


5. Natural Calamities Migration:


One the village called Naugaun in Bhattwadi district is affected by the most frequent natural calamities every year and even twice in the rainy season. The mountain above this village usually drags down deluge and not only damages human shelters but drags away their cattle’s like cow and goats.  Many of the Pradhan likewise this village have told that due to these natural threats many of the villagers have left their heritable properties and migrated to some other low land areas. This is another field and effective cause letting migration.


6. Infrastructure Migration:


There are still many villages which lacks amount of proper infra for the development of the villages. The most pertinent thing to connect the villages is road connectivity. It has been observed that, many villages are do not come inside purview any connectivity of roads due to which it becomes very difficult for the authorities  to have constant linkage for the village at time of  emergencies like medical evacuation, pregnant women and another assistance like necessary life supporting commodities. Due to lack of road connectivity villagers decided to migrate to other parts of district here they can have proper road connectivity.


Table 2

Use of remittances % households
Basic consumption need 91.8
Education of children 60.1
Health care 64.3
Payments for labour and other costs relating to agriculture 12.2
Repair of house 8.2
Purchase of consumer durables 2.0
Payments of loans 3.1
Purchase of land 2.0
Source: Maingai Report   





Suggestions to tackle Migration through Agriculture

From last 21 day I have taken various interviews of Gram Pradhan and Villagers majority of villagers are mainly proletariat, but ironically maximum of them dependent on government rationing, In my opinion Uttarakhand not endure similar pattern and impacts factor  causing migration, but every reason beset by its own impinging effect of migration. There are numerous ways through which out migration can be tackled, like building infra and other facility but Uttarakhand government does not understanding the very imperative realm of migration and that is Agriculture of state. The pragmatic notion as fellow:

  1. Negligence’s towards agricultural sector:

Let me tell you Uttarakhand agric product have slew demand in other state of India due to its purity, taste and quality like Potatoes, Tomatoes, Rice, Brown Floor(manduwa), Pulses (Rajma)  including many medicines plants which cannot grow in other parts of India. There are cases found in many cities where various agric product are been sold by the name of Garhwal Brand. Therefore authority should only focus on improving and taking into account lack of infra availability, the main root cause of out migration is employment that is true, authority will have construct some policies towards employment through agricultural which used to prevail earlier.


2.Lack of cold Storage:

Agric product also suffer from the limitation of proper storing facility, Uttarakhand(UKD) have immense diversity of its weather, UKD have numerous amount of landslides accruing in every now and then mainly during monsoon season same times when farmers have bonanza of crops, but the problem arises how to store (cold storage).To get rid of loses farmer  have to supply their product as soon as possible to plane areas of UKD but due to bad weather and heavy landslides trucks usually struck in various parts of UKD hills impacting profit margin of the farmer income.

3. Least co-operation between farmer and Forest department:

It has been mention by the every single villager as well farmer that more than 70 to 80% of  their crops has been destroyed by the wild animals like Blue bull, Pork, Wild Bear, Monkeys and other animals. But farmer do not have any right to kill any of these wild animals if happens they have to levy with heavy monetary penalty punishment by the forest department.

4. Preservation by Forest Department:

Incubation of wrong trees may have cascading affect, UKD forests have bonanza of Cedrus (deodar)trees,  his qualities are, it do not holds soil erosion (which infuse landslides), it ignites forest fire during summer, do not provide any fruits, its roots do not holds water but ironically forest departments preserve it. Himachal is known for this apples orchards when why can than why not UKD both endure almost akin scale of weather conditions, Himachal understands its revenue coffer through agric products (it orchards)

Know it is very favourable time for UKD government to improvise its Agric policy. Government can implement co-operate farming through which government can allot a certain area of forest to every family of farmers and aid them to grow some fruit trees which will start giving return in coming three year, but this is not possible without co-operation of forest department because despite of been Women like Gaura Devi who had started Chipko Movement in 1987, propagated that forests are same like their own family today these forest have been snatched way by the government. The Government should re allot some forest land to every family for only fruits trees farming and lease them land for more than 20 year with renewal of licences because villagers will never do trees farming in fertile land that to they have very less which usually eroded in every monsoon.

5. Tackle wild animals:

The Plantation of fruit trees will also have cascading effect on the advent of wild animals. This is because animals only attracted towards farmers crop is due to reduction in the amount of food available in the jungle but with the plantation of fruit trees in jungles will not only quench their hungriness but also preserve farmer’s crops due to fulfilment of their food needs.


My all the opinion is fully based on the various interviews and some of the research papers on migration mentioned on the references. I strongly advocate my opinion if UKD government have to tackle with migration it have to focus on its agric policy which absolute in hills, the only way through which migration can be halt is through attain self financial reliance and right policy with its ground implementation.




  1. Rajendra P. Mamgain and D.N. Reddy, OUTMIGRATION FROM HILL REGION OF UTTARAKHAND: Magnitude, Challenges and Policy Options in 2014.
  2. Proliferating Migration of Uttarakhand’s Youth – Reasons, Remedies and RecommendationsUniversity Of Petroleum and Energy Studies,  Author Guid, Dr Vickram Sahai Associate Professor Dr Rati Oberoi Assistant Professor.


Author Peeyush Bharadwaj and Mohit Pande




Ebb of monopoly for E payments giants

This has been taken from our blog,”Brinks of economic thoughts”

Ebb of monopoly for E payments giants


Black money not only incubates terrorism but also impinge economic growth of country. All over India and around the Globe contention for demonetization is its peak. This move has dragged each individual in queue, but still India market need huge amount of liquidity. Federal Reserve, Standard and Poor and IMF already parsing (Modi)government, expecting rupee growth and worthiness in future. However this decision will be lucrative or fiasco will observe, but till now it’s an enigma, but surely it will impact and confiscate on terrorism funding, including various separatist organizations operating in India. This incumbent decision imposed by GOI absolutely, showing his outstanding images even outside the world. But also graping plethora of criticism from various parties, due to directly hitting parties anonymity funds, which they require to utilize during elections.


GOI doing every possible attempt to promote e channels, even soon to launch lucky draws schemes, from its coffer for those who are regularly promote cashless payments. But the pertinent question is, we believe that cashless society have its huge benefits than cash dominant society. But then huge amount of E payment by specific private company is a serious issue. No doubt that company like Pay Tm, Momoe, Pay U Money, Mobikwik E wallets can be backbone for cashless future.


Imperatively it also stiff concern for Internet security, including desirable situation for monopoly by these private player. You must have not forget, few day before hole banking sector of India was under cyber take, which not only bewildered and threatened Indian top most banking officials, but also rest of the people. After that even RBI have advice people to alter their ATM passwords immediately. To switch from cash to cashless society is not so difficult, but to secure each individual account payment from robbery should be pertinent task. According to Internet sources, US along have one of the largest on line payment system and huge dependency on Internet, but it also holds curse of world largest online fraud and scam across the world, millions of fake mail arrival to US citizen every day, by the countries like Nigeria and other politically disturb nation, on line frauds in these countries is a business, which successfully generate huge amount of funds for various terrorist organizations.



We usually learn in economics, that monopoly do not preclude competitiveness, hence monopoly should only demarcated to authority, not with private entrepreneurs.



8th of November announcement by government for demonetization, PayTm has immerged as E payment giant across the nation. It is human psychology to always hunt for alternatives. Metro cities have already started swapping cards on various shops, for those do not have swapping machine are using PayTm to transfer money at slew. To have online payment is not a problem, for an example, Alipay china largest online payment gateway launched in China in 2004 by Alibaba Group and its founder Jack Ma. According to an analyst research report, Alipay had the biggest market share in China with 400 million users and control of just under half of China’s online payment market in October 2016. According to Credit Suisse, the total value of online transactions in China grew from an insignificant size in 2008 to around RMB 4 trillion (US$660 billion) in 2012. I am sceptic regarding PayTm, its size of share in market, but if he grows beyond significantly margin definitely it will impact Indian economic system and no wonder it will impinge its dependence on each individual pattern of payment. Therefore willy – nilly it will decide payment charges and acquire market completely, by restricting immerging players.

At last I thing authority should intervene, to sustain competitiveness in on line payment market and should promote its own online payment portal like “SBI buddy” as compare to PayTm or any third private player. And try to amalgamate all the advance features and modernization required to compete with private giants.



Mohit Pandey


Pursuing Economics Honours  3rd year.


Doon University Dehradun. (Uttrakhand)


Gmail address: Mohitpande2@gmail.com, Mohit.doon98@gmail.com

Efficiency of Financial Markets

This has been taken from our blog,Brinks of economic thoughts.

Efficiency of financial markets


Financial markets are very crucial part of a modern economy, we have by now come across an understanding that financial markets do provide an opportunity to the peoples who have an excess of funds or surplus of funds to interact in a market place and meet with peoples who have an deficit of funds,,,financial markets help in channelizing the funds and attaining efficiency and profit maximising intention too.


For proper functioning and  efficiency of a market it is important that market is fully regulated, and properly monitored,,


With advent of more and more demand of increasing deregulation, we are witnessing newest of financial explorations in terms of financial products, [like credit default swaps,,these were considered as weapons of mass economic catastrophe by WARREN BUFFET] ]it is not known many a times that these product are how much toxic in naturehow much can they hurt an economy if they falter..,


In  a way financial economy has taken over the true economic production,,,we see an era when financial products are created to make more and more profits, after the downfall of 2008 there were many a times questions raised about the use of such innovative operations,,,


To ensure that markets work efficiently, these explorations should be accompanied with very strong and stringent regulation framework..

Then important is free flow of information, proper information should be available to investors,,,


Another tendency which is widely witnessed is of insider trading,,this has to be curtailed,,,eg,rajat gupta of board of goldman sachs was responsible for insider trading .

Insider trading is when one of the prominent members of a board of company who has an excess to confidential reports of company, leaks them to outside to make individual profits.

So important thing for efficient markets is a market which is fully regulated,,,well monitored,,,allows every one to participate,,,also ensures that information is available to all,,and keeps a necessary check on the insider trading.


Harsh Vardhan Pathak