The Advent of British into Uttarakhand Forest(1815-1945)

  Can be also read at our blog, Brinks of economic thoughts,


This Paper inquest about the advent of colonialism in Garhwal, Kumaon forests and the impact endured by Kumaonie and Garhwali people by invasion of British not only on their state but on entire forest, their own resources. This paper further discourse the advent of British towards Uttarakhand from Kumaon region their proliferation to entire province, rampant extraction of Oak, Timber and Sal trees. The entire region was indentified to fulfil un-quenching need of wood and snatched away all the resources from native people imposed heavy taxes and fines in every alteration of forest rules different ways are determine to exploit each and every single tree. Last paragraph impends to wonder upon sorrow state of Indian forest form 1805 to 2017 as only regime changes but situation remains unvarying.

Uttarakhand and its Forest

The Advent of British Empire sail form Kumaon region to entire Uttarakhand. Unlike Gorkhas , people of Uttarakhand deliberately supported British regime due to suffering and agony bestowed by the Gorkhas. Although both the regimes of Gorkhas and British had exploited each-every facade of natural resources of Uttarakhand. After defeating Gorkhas the British started prolifying its dirigisme into entire province of Uttarakhand started form kumaon and headed toward Garhwal region.

After 1815 northern region forest commander Dietrich Brandis under commissioner G.W Traill, they entered Himalayan region with the cause, British commenced making laws to exploit the Himalayan forest that to basically looking at the fine quality of Oak and Timber wood which were memorising British to fulfil the demand of strong wood for the construction of northern railways tracks and seats, berths building. British Ramify Uttarakhand forest on three zone first reserved category second Preserve category and third for the civil category unlike without pondering the cascading effect on the Garhwali and Kumaoni people who have great dependence on forest, British kept villagers aloof from their own grown and preserve forest. The reason behind to ramifying entire forest in three different zone was increasing need of wood demand for the British, the preserved forest were made to grow those trees which were basically take time to mature for like Timber wood, the reserved forest was for maintaining ongoing supply of wood for the British either for the ship building or construction of railways and the last small semi areas of dense forest was given to villagers for their consumption need but availability of required natural resources was really negligible, tones of oak and timber was extracted by the English during 1815 to 1840 but after that cascading effects was started, the instances heat of summers during February and June caused lots of forest fire and many times by the villagers due to anger against British due to which British was having revue losses. When the committee was constituted to analyse the reason behind the forest fire under supervision of “Wyndham” submitted his report to Dietrich in his report it was advice to increase villagers participation and co-operation again in the forest activity rather than taking away accessibility of forest from them.

After 1878 the first law of Indian Forest was enacted, under which forest was guard by the local police. But resulted unprecedented despite to provide independence to villagers to excess forest they had been asked to bribe forest police several times even to pick small twigs of woods for their fuel wood, on the other hand black marketing was infused by local police itself private constructed stipulated with forest officials and numerous amount of wood smuggling within the purview of authority was started by the help of river Ganga wood logs had been swim to plain land side and then collected to Bareilly. Therefore British Government was facing tremendous demand of wood for the expansion of railways in the north region and even for inputs for their industries in England. Millions tones of fine well toned wood of oak,sal and Timber had been burned for simply coal purposes for the railway fuel. By observing failure of local police management “Dietrich” suggest British government to dissolve the forest department into revenue department as earlier because after formation of forest department Britisher were excepting increment in the supply of wood which has resulted unsatisfactory. The another aspect of clearing forest has came from the side of British the expansion of their colonies in hills has reduce the forest cover with more plantation of tea business has increased cascading impact on forest cover which was dampened the continuous demand for wood.

Table 1

Timber and Firewood Outturn in Uttaranchal, 1887-88 to 1912-13 (in 1000 cft)

Year Timber Firewood Total
1987-88 1778 3509 5287
1990-91 2712 5831 8543
1994-95 1684 5876 7470
1901-02 2959 5680 8638
1908-09 4087 5877 9964
1910-11 4502 6032 10534
1911-12 5105 6228 11333
1912-13 8692 5402 14395

Source: Annual Progress Reports of the Forest Department, UP, for concerned years.

As it has been observed form the above table that how rampant was the demand of timber from 1888 to 1912 a second highest demand was for the fire wood this is because majority of industry and railways mechanism was demanding energy in form of coal. But after 1915 the Kumaon and Garhwal natural resources had started shrinking, the Kumoan commissioner Dietrich failed to sustain un-interrupted supply and both Preserve and Reserve forest started giving negative returns due to vast variation between reduction in the rate of cutting of trees and rate of plantation and growth. Again after 1915 the British required immense amount of wood supply for the ongoing 1st world war (many of the troops of Kumaon and Garhwal has left the Kumaon regiment to protest against the suppression by British), secondly for construction of ships and for the fuel purposes but irony is faced by the people of Uttarakhand because they were denied to use any of natural resources from their own forest not even for cremation of human body, Kumaonies has to collect wood stick at night from the forest for the coking purposes.


Colonial Approach of Today: According to Wydham we cannot have prosperous forest without co-operation of village society. Today’s Indian forest policy akin with British forestry policy our government still keeps aloof village society from forest. Rigid forest laws keeps villagers totally aloof from the dense forest villagers cannot use any of the natural output of forest if they wish to use any they have to bribe the forest official, same as used to occur in era of British. Despite that people of Uttarakhand initiated well known idea of Chipko movement and activist like Gaura Devi, Sunder lal Bahugana who always stood to perpetuate forest, from them government had taken all the rights and impend them to remain in confused vicious cycle of corruption and trouble. If we really wish to expand our forest cover we have to co-operate between village society and forest department also tries to provide equal property rights to all the villagers as forest also belong to them from decades. British Bishop of London Church had the visit to Grahwal and Kumaon near in 1840 while wondering he saw the massive devastation of cutting and exploitation of natural resources, he further mentioned that Uttarakhand coming generation may not see the beauty of dense forest as it will not prevail forever.


1. The Forests of the Western Himalayas: The Legacy of British Colonial Administration Author(s): Richard P. TuckerVol. 26, No. 3 (Jul., 1982), pp. 112-123 Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of Forest History Society and American Society for Environmental History Stable URL:

2. State, Society and Natural Resources in Himalaya: Dynamics of Change in Colonial and Post-Colonial Uttarakhand Author(s): Shekhar Pathak Source: Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 32, No. 17 (Apr. 26 – May 2, 1997), pp. 908-912 Published by: Economic and Political Weekly Stable URL: Accessed: 17-09-2017 06:24 UTC.

3. The Historical Context of Social Forestry in the Kumaon Himalayas Author(s): Richard P. Tucker Source: The Journal of Developing Areas, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Apr., 1984), pp. 341-356 Published by: College of Business, Tennessee State University Stable URL: Accessed: 17-09-2017 06:35 UTC.

Mohit Pandey

Uttarkashi and Bhattwadi Block.



This report is about Economy, Criminality and Overall Development of Bhattwadi block. Bhattwadi is the block in Uttarkashi District of Uttrakhand state. Bhattwadi block amalgamates 99 villages. Three of these pertinent points have further bifurcated into as follows. Failure of Agriculture and Devastation caused by flash flood and landslides, the curse of wrong research and policies, road connectivity and infrastructure, Health status and Education. Bhattwadi imbued with slew number of the proletariat and very less number of bourgeoisie and semi bourgeoisie population. But Bhattwadi also ensures punitive injection of wrong analyse, wrong interpretation, wrong economic policy implementation and wrong data collection problems which further have serious cascading repercussion in life of villagers. Health status of Bhattwadi block is on alarming state, although Janani “Suraksha Yojana” has shown some hope of improvement.


The economy of state:


The economy of Bhattwadi district is majorly dependent on Agriculture and farm based products this reason has a bonanza of famous Garhwal Potatoes, Rice, Brown flour(madwa) and rajma (pulses). But condition of Agric economy demise in sorrow state, reason being government have yet not identified its potential like quality of Garhwal products, government should provide and identified  their framer’s products and providing them common platform for agriculture market where they can sell at market prices( for an example Champagne a villages wine which have proliferated in international market.




While investigating in various villages our team has identified numerous amounts of cases of Bride trafficking and girls trafficking cases. Numerous numbers human trafficking has been observed.  Villagers, bride families, their natives and relatives positively responded for bride trafficking. We may assume all these as tools of marriage or bride trafficking.


Overall Development:


All most every village we have covered, lack with basic life supporting amenities like less number of CNG gas connections, Road connectivity, Health facilities, Education only up to primary level, Drugs dealing, the mellow cooperation of Police, Failure of MGNREGA, fragile old houses and high volatility of electricity supply.


Agriculture, Health and Infrastructure:


More than ninety percent of the people are engaged in agriculture. Agriculture is the only source of income for villagers. They had use Hybrid seeds for plantation provided by AJIVIKA and BHUVNESHWARI and RELIANCE. Reliance has adopted Barsu for 5 years. They also provide a POLY house for the incubation of their fields from wild animals and snowfall. Seeds that they brought from Punjab and Haryana are of a bad quality which reduces soil fertility and their production. But most of the crop got damaged by wild animals such as bears, wild boars, wild pork, monkeys and languor. Natural calamities like Floods, Landslide, heavy rainfall, hailstorms, Earthquakes, etc had affected these areas heavily. In June 2013, heavy rainfall resulted in flash floods and landslides and caused huge destruction in these areas.  After 2013 floods lead to the reduction of fertility of land. Whatever grown in fields it is used for self-consumption and not for income generation.  Agricultural techniques of farmers is either absolute or outdated, even now villagers uses traditional methods for agriculture due to which they do not get surplus production. This impedes them more dependent upon government Rationing. They have very fewer land left for cultivation, all their fields got eroded while flashing floods. Sometimes Government also takes their lands for the construction of roads but do not pay any compensation. Houses, roads, markets all the things had affected and connectivity of this area with infrastructural facilities had been hurdled. Roads, Bridges are still under reconstruction. Villages like Gajoli, Naugaon has poor road connectivity because road is broken and underwent reconstruction. Due to which these villages become isolated. After 1991 earthquake, aluminium sheets for houses were provided by HYDRA, RSS, INDRA AWAS YOJANA, Tata Trust and ANGLE SHADE had provided houses more than 30 percent of villagers. The health condition of the people alarming. More than 70 percent of the people do not have toilet facilities and proper sanitation. Bhattwadi often suffers from lack of access to healthcare presentation and rare time for emergencies evacuation. People living in rural areas tend to have a higher rate of tobacco and alcoholism. Around one in five of all women have a Hysterectomy due to pulling heavy wood stock, water canes etc. People are not concerned about their health and hygiene children’s were not even wearing slippers and were wearing filthy clothes.




As if till now after visiting and a number of villages, interviewing villagers and their respective Pradhans the sorrow state of villages has been observed. Entire Garhwal area has been paved by proletariat population hence government should frame policy accord to support the agric sectors, government should also imping and revamp guaranteed employment scheme(MGNREGA). And should seriously implement recommendations by people like Comrade PC joshi, PS Rawat and Mr. Mangain.



Villages Reports.



Village and Block Village: Jhamak  Block – bhatwari




Key informants interviewed (who are they?) The local leader (Gram Pradhan) was very pessimistic regarding government allocation of funds, it is so ludicrous to construct china walls to protect proliferation of forest fire and spending millions on it, rather than understanding basic root cause why forest fire ignites, the very basic notion of forest fire is Palm trees(Chid) these trees do not possess any bonanza for mountain soil but rather act like impurities injections, the falling leaves of Palm tree ignites like fire in cotton he said. Government should initiate re-plantation of trees which are not only lucrative for mountains soil but also for wild animals and villagers, authorities should allot funds in these directions, coherently involving local villagers and other government departments he further stated.


Employment opportunity in the villages It was very astonishing that Jamak have such a naive percentage of MGNREGA employment scheme villagers are found in very negligible amount those who have participate in MGNREGA scheme due to lack of development projects in village. But Jamak also endure some favour after construction of dam, there are the villagers found to be employed in Hydro project dam.  But proportionate population remains unemployed with highly dependency on farming with disguise employment.
Challenges faced Entire Uttarkashi belt come under purview of high seismic earthquake zone so jamak. But jamak is also bless with human construction (Maneri Dam) this village endure heavy shocks of tunnel blasting from last 30 year the entire village soil has shaken and lost its density which has its cascading impact, soil sedimentation due to which villagers living in Kacha and semi kacha houses have to live in fear of   house demolition.


Case study Jamak is also observed seismic on the ground of Bride trafficking villages was not openly stating about incidences but mentioning three to five cases of such incidence. It was also observed that squareness of bride trafficking more diverted towards scheduled tribe rather than general category.


Case 1. Anju is the daughter of Umeed lal and belong to scheduled caste, while investigating with her younger sister told that Anju was married to Mureet 3 years ago and hole marriage was sponsored by in laws.


Case 2. While investigating another case of bride trafficking mushroomed. Junk dealer sold his two daughters one in panjab and Uttar Predesh amount was not stated.  

Case 3.  The boy went to delhi in search of job opportunities but never returns, police did not support the search of boy.

No strong signals were identified between Umeed lal and its in laws nativness. Villages also told about the incompetency of poor schedule tribe who cannot afford expenditure like marriage, it is a bliss that some one ready to take away their daughter without demanding for dowry.


`Health From the last few year “Janani suraksha yojna” playing imperative roll on women after their deliveries, 1400Rs amount of money is given by the government hospitals to these ladies and Ambulance drop infant baby and mother to her native place (Khushi ki Gadi) called in local language. But due to lack of doctors in PHC and CHC villagers have to travel Uttarkashi government hospital even for basic health problems.


Education It has been observed that Jamak ensure satisfactory level of primary education facilities. But the higher level of education accessibility remains absent, children who wanted to pursue their higher studies have to travel or migrate uttarkashi for completing their higher degrees.


Overall experience Jhamak is the most fragile village, which comes under highest seismic zone of earthquake and heavy landslides reason being its geographical location paved by Himalayas most unstable up folding mountains, Maneri Hydro project Dam due its artificial lake, it continuously weakening Jamak soil density, causing heavy landslides now and then, the underground tunnel which passes through Jamak bed also plays pertinent roll for heavy landslides and earthquakes.


Its already mentioned about dependency on farming sector by Jamak people. Jamak already endured more than three-time mega devastation by natural calamities one in 1991, another in 2004 and the last in 2013. Heavy land slides and mellow earthquake tremors have eroded numerous amount of fertile land, reduce per capita land holding area of villagers. Which further damping the amount of farm products and their revenues.


Jamak was observed good cooperation of police, reason may be nativeness of Hydro dam, but good cooperation of police have reduce alcoholism of villagers and they feel sense of incubation from fear and crime. Reliance, RSS and Tata trust have provided villagers with seeds, fruit plants and teen sheets.




Village and Block Village:Naogaon  Block –Bhattwadi



Keyinformants interviewed (who are they?) Naogaon is the other interior and last village of bhattwadi block. While interviewing with Gram Pradam some fascinating facts have immersed. Earlier their use to be numerous amount of agriculture production use to happen, but now situation is totally ironical, our major crop use to be mandwa,Potato,Cholai,Rice but interference of wild animal usually destroy our crops due to which we have to depend on government regular rationing. In every landslides we usually lose our cattles and fertile land.


Employement oppertunity in the villages While investigating Naogaon it was observed that numerous amount of people acquire higher bachelor degrees but due to lack of employment apportunities they have to dependent of agriculture. The another fascinating fact was Naogaon do not have few numbers of people who are employed in MANREGA, most of house holds have worked only for nine to ten days that to without wages, neither government provide any unemployment guarantee.


Challenges faced Naogaon is the most difficult terrain with the point of view of road connectivity, medical emergencies and regular necessary ration supply, this village is the most affected by cloud bust, flash floods and weekly mellow tremors of earthquakes. Villagers complain about government negligence of not providing them 100 guaranteed employment scheme due to which they have to migrate Dehradun and other states in search of employment.


Case study Case 1.  While investigating villagers waffling about network of bride trafficking they said there are few shopkeepers in Uttarkashi who are in touch with some villagers, these villagers connect link between girls parent families and shopkeeper with clients.

Case 2. One case of child adoption was found where boy was adopted 10 years ago due to demise of this blooded parents.

Case 3. Three years back, case was found where intercaste marriage look place when parents denied for marriage ceremony couple decided move out from village but when they came back both of them forcefully re-married to different individuals.


Health This village face extreme difficulties during women deliveries.To reach Naogaon 5 kilometres upstream serpentine path breaks breath several several times, it can be imagine how these pregnant women could reach road side waiting for ambulance. From last four year “Janani shuraksha Yojana” have shown positive implementation, pregnant women are drop and picked by 108 ambulance service without any charges with 1400Rs to women. But due to absences of road connectivity it becomes way difficult for victims to reach road side area. Therefore almost every major and minnor cases have to approach Uttarkashi government hospital. Almost all the villagers do not have any medical  insurance, even small surgery like women uterus operation drag their entire savings.


Education Nawa Goa again faces hindrance in education sector, it has been observed that only primary education is available rest after completing 8th students have to move uttarkashi to attain his secondary and higher education.


Overall experience This village also endure reams of wrong research and policies. Villagers told that  few investigators also approach to their village, they have observed our few cattle due to which they wrongly pulled us from BPL to APL ration category which reduced our food share, we have to lost one to two cattles in every flash deluge and flash floods, if we would been been stayed in BPL category we would have gain some financial support from government in form of cattles or money villager said.


Mahila mangal daal (women community) also honestly fulfilling their social responsibility by control home made alcohol and other form of drugs.


Under Swach Bharatt Abhiyan Swajal department have to provide financial support to families for constructing toilets but in middle of construction Swajal have stopped its financial support to poor families.




By Mohit Pandey

Phone Number 7351705526

Uttarakhand and Waiting Mountains



Today’s Uttrakhand faces euphoric concept called Migration. We usually keep on listening debates on news channels about Uttrakhand Migration and politician waffling about how to curb Migration. While retrograding my Professor opinion on both side migrations accruing our state, Uttrakhand is on serious call to applaud devil and dissent with serenity. My last 22 days visit to Uttrakashi District for field survey left with some of intriguing issues and facts about future of Uttrakhandies. Well it’s so astonishing that neither a state  nor centre government had ponder how to stabilised migration, instead of their political agenda, on the serious note Uttrakhand is glittering on the hand of mafia’s and human traders.This paper revel about the sorrow state of Uttarakhand Migration, this report also ponder upon whether migration should be considered as problem or a global phenomena which is unstoppable, This report provide same suggestion due to which government can cartel 60 per cent of its migration and migratory pattern. 



Table 1

Select Demographic Features of Uttarakhand and India, 2011

Sl. Variable         Uttarakhand   India
No.             Hill Plain areas Total  
1. Population (in millions)   48.50 52.36 100.86 1210.8
2. 0-6 years population (%)   13.18 13.68 13.44 13.60
3. Population growth rate (2001- 0.70 2.82 1.74 1.64
4. Sex ratio (all age groups) 1037 900 963 943
5. Sex ratio (0-6 age group)   894 888 890 919
6. SC population (%)     20.91 16.78 18.76 16.6
7. ST population (%)     1.05 4.60 2.89 8.6
8. % Urban population     17.06 42.43 30.23 31.2
9. Growth  in urban population 2.43 3.81 3.42 2.80
10. Literacy Rate (%)     80.87 76.90 78.82 73.0
11. % Workers (main plus 43.71 33.47 38.39 39.8
  marginal) in total population        
12. WPR- Male       48.32 50.84 49.67 53.3
13 WPR-Female       39.26 14.16 26.68 25.5


Source: Calculated from Primary Census Abstract, India and Uttarakhand, 2011




Migratory Pattern and Migration:


Migration is mellow dramatic politics of Uttrakhand number of politicians waffling about migration and their impact and even demonstrates their plan to halt migration and advocates for reverse migration, but pragmatically reverse migration is same as “cultivating sugar cane in desert”. Before starting to write about migration and its adverse impact, the very notion we all should ponder that whether migration is a problem or a trend of globalisation, which is indispensable and unstoppable, does cause of migration are similar in entire Uttrakhand or dependent on three basic foundations like education, health and employment, is debacle. This report will future discusses many other factors of migration. Due to variations in geographical terrains Uttrakhand do not have similar factors affecting migration and its causes, it has been observed that Uttrakhand possess different factors causing migration in different parts of Uttrakhand, which implies that Uttrakhand need different policies to tackles with factors causing migration along with different regions of Uttrakhand. There are some factors which have been identified while my field visit, they are as following:


1.Education Migration:


Education is the most pertinent tool to re-shape not only individual future but also decides modernity of future. Government have started mid day meal and free assistance to the poor families to augment number of students in classes, we have seen status of primary education though have gained some strength but still majority of students fails to have accessibility of higher education and field of innovation. Tangling issue faced by the Garhwal students is to whether or not attend the classes in different weathers because they have to travel more than five to seven kilometres every day for their classes. Rest of the students somehow managed them self’s to settle in Uttrakashi for higher education, for different coaching classes to prepare for future studies. Due to lack of proper higher education institution students have to migrate to different district and states which can be called as Education Migration.



2. Health Migration:


Health is another trembling issue faced by the Garhwalies (people living in Grahwal). While taking interviews of villagers they keep on recounter about flash flood and landslides due to which not only villagers get injured but also their cattle’s, many of the incidence happened in the past where villagers get injured while landslides and cloud bust they have to rush hospital but due to any primary bandage victim have to lose their last breath. While collecting sample for different villages and blocks not a single village had blessed with Primary health centres (PHC) fortunately if some village have one, that do not posses a single doctors with absence of availability of medicines. Government “Janani Suraksha” scheme have shown some hope for betterment, under this scheme. Pregnant women can call for 108 (Ambulance help line) Ambulance picks and drop women and her ward to her village without any monetary charges, government hospital also pays 1400 rupees to the women after getting delivery of her child. Bhattwadi and Dunda blocks of villagers have to dependent on Uttrakashi government hospital for the medical aid and have to face crunch of availability of good doctors, many of the villages even do not have road connectivity due to which pregnant women and patients have lifted by human poachers to the reach native village which have road connectivity, (it was hard to imagine how to poach a pregnant women in those vertical muddy and bumpy path).The another Blocks Purola and Nauguan village have dependency on the Badkot villages which have some medical facility with lack of availability of good doctors, failure of dependence on these reason hospital people have to rush Dehradun for better health. These all condition and circumstances impede villagers to permanently settle in villages. They also migrate for the better health because their appointments with doctors waiting fare in Dehradun or Rishikesh.


3. Employment Migration:


Employment is another pertinent toll to curb out migration. While investigating it was observed that number of household either dependent on the agriculture or grace of MGNREGA guarantee employment scheme. It has been observed that all the Gram Pradhans (excluding one of them) are playing thick money making game while generating employment of the villagers. Pradhans fails to provide employment more than 20 days and that to without any wages for their work. The number of villagers has dependency to the private contraction happing in their village or in the native villages because process of wages payment in MGNREGA is too late and complex every blog officer blame for payment incompetency to some other officer (senior or junior designation). Not even private construction but also government guaranteed employment scheme does not have consistency in work and wages, due to which villagers have to move out from their town and district to the search of better work and greater possibility. This further ignites the migration of villagers.


4. Agricultural Migration:


The majority of villagers are proletariat and regularly do farming in every seasons, not for selling their agric products but for their self consumption because majority of population had to dependent on the government rationing. This is because due to flash floods, hail stormed, landslides and wild animals, villagers had to lose their fertile land which was eroded by these natural calamities every years and still getting eroded, this has actually reduce the number of percentage of land holding of the villagers, those who used to plunge their own field now have to dependent on others land and working with them not for wages but for a small share of the ration.


5. Natural Calamities Migration:


One the village called Naugaun in Bhattwadi district is affected by the most frequent natural calamities every year and even twice in the rainy season. The mountain above this village usually drags down deluge and not only damages human shelters but drags away their cattle’s like cow and goats.  Many of the Pradhan likewise this village have told that due to these natural threats many of the villagers have left their heritable properties and migrated to some other low land areas. This is another field and effective cause letting migration.


6. Infrastructure Migration:


There are still many villages which lacks amount of proper infra for the development of the villages. The most pertinent thing to connect the villages is road connectivity. It has been observed that, many villages are do not come inside purview any connectivity of roads due to which it becomes very difficult for the authorities  to have constant linkage for the village at time of  emergencies like medical evacuation, pregnant women and another assistance like necessary life supporting commodities. Due to lack of road connectivity villagers decided to migrate to other parts of district here they can have proper road connectivity.


Table 2

Use of remittances % households
Basic consumption need 91.8
Education of children 60.1
Health care 64.3
Payments for labour and other costs relating to agriculture 12.2
Repair of house 8.2
Purchase of consumer durables 2.0
Payments of loans 3.1
Purchase of land 2.0
Source: Maingai Report   





Suggestions to tackle Migration through Agriculture

From last 21 day I have taken various interviews of Gram Pradhan and Villagers majority of villagers are mainly proletariat, but ironically maximum of them dependent on government rationing, In my opinion Uttarakhand not endure similar pattern and impacts factor  causing migration, but every reason beset by its own impinging effect of migration. There are numerous ways through which out migration can be tackled, like building infra and other facility but Uttarakhand government does not understanding the very imperative realm of migration and that is Agriculture of state. The pragmatic notion as fellow:

  1. Negligence’s towards agricultural sector:

Let me tell you Uttarakhand agric product have slew demand in other state of India due to its purity, taste and quality like Potatoes, Tomatoes, Rice, Brown Floor(manduwa), Pulses (Rajma)  including many medicines plants which cannot grow in other parts of India. There are cases found in many cities where various agric product are been sold by the name of Garhwal Brand. Therefore authority should only focus on improving and taking into account lack of infra availability, the main root cause of out migration is employment that is true, authority will have construct some policies towards employment through agricultural which used to prevail earlier.


2.Lack of cold Storage:

Agric product also suffer from the limitation of proper storing facility, Uttarakhand(UKD) have immense diversity of its weather, UKD have numerous amount of landslides accruing in every now and then mainly during monsoon season same times when farmers have bonanza of crops, but the problem arises how to store (cold storage).To get rid of loses farmer  have to supply their product as soon as possible to plane areas of UKD but due to bad weather and heavy landslides trucks usually struck in various parts of UKD hills impacting profit margin of the farmer income.

3. Least co-operation between farmer and Forest department:

It has been mention by the every single villager as well farmer that more than 70 to 80% of  their crops has been destroyed by the wild animals like Blue bull, Pork, Wild Bear, Monkeys and other animals. But farmer do not have any right to kill any of these wild animals if happens they have to levy with heavy monetary penalty punishment by the forest department.

4. Preservation by Forest Department:

Incubation of wrong trees may have cascading affect, UKD forests have bonanza of Cedrus (deodar)trees,  his qualities are, it do not holds soil erosion (which infuse landslides), it ignites forest fire during summer, do not provide any fruits, its roots do not holds water but ironically forest departments preserve it. Himachal is known for this apples orchards when why can than why not UKD both endure almost akin scale of weather conditions, Himachal understands its revenue coffer through agric products (it orchards)

Know it is very favourable time for UKD government to improvise its Agric policy. Government can implement co-operate farming through which government can allot a certain area of forest to every family of farmers and aid them to grow some fruit trees which will start giving return in coming three year, but this is not possible without co-operation of forest department because despite of been Women like Gaura Devi who had started Chipko Movement in 1987, propagated that forests are same like their own family today these forest have been snatched way by the government. The Government should re allot some forest land to every family for only fruits trees farming and lease them land for more than 20 year with renewal of licences because villagers will never do trees farming in fertile land that to they have very less which usually eroded in every monsoon.

5. Tackle wild animals:

The Plantation of fruit trees will also have cascading effect on the advent of wild animals. This is because animals only attracted towards farmers crop is due to reduction in the amount of food available in the jungle but with the plantation of fruit trees in jungles will not only quench their hungriness but also preserve farmer’s crops due to fulfilment of their food needs.


My all the opinion is fully based on the various interviews and some of the research papers on migration mentioned on the references. I strongly advocate my opinion if UKD government have to tackle with migration it have to focus on its agric policy which absolute in hills, the only way through which migration can be halt is through attain self financial reliance and right policy with its ground implementation.




  1. Rajendra P. Mamgain and D.N. Reddy, OUTMIGRATION FROM HILL REGION OF UTTARAKHAND: Magnitude, Challenges and Policy Options in 2014.
  2. Proliferating Migration of Uttarakhand’s Youth – Reasons, Remedies and RecommendationsUniversity Of Petroleum and Energy Studies,  Author Guid, Dr Vickram Sahai Associate Professor Dr Rati Oberoi Assistant Professor.


Author Peeyush Bharadwaj and Mohit Pande




It’s called revers migration.

Taken from our blog,”Brink of economic Thought”


It’s called revers migration.


From last and more than 25 days I was traveling with TISS on the project called human trafficking in Uttarkashi Block. Therefore I have a short note on the sorrow state of Uttrakhand hills.

Today’s Uttrakhand faces euphoric concept called Migration. We usually keep on listening debates on news channels about Uttrakhand Migration and politician waffling about how to curb Migration. While retrograding my Professor opinion on both side migrations accruing our state, Uttrakhand is on serious call to applaud devil and descent with serenity. My last 22 days visit to Uttrakashi District for field survey left with some of intriguing issues and facts about future of Uttrakhandies. Well its so astonishing that neither a state  or centre government do not pondering in this direction either have any policies to curb the situation, on the serious note Uttrakhand is glittering on the hand of mafia’s and human traders. Here is the small report.

1. Seven out of four households had sold their girls to Haryana, Delhi, Hyderabad, Rorkee, Dehradun, Punjab and Uttra Pradesh due to incompetency of their financial stability.

2. Entire village children’s imbued in local drugs and selling it with the aid of taxi drivers and local dealers.

3. Majority of farmers had lost their fertile land due to landslides and flash floods. Farmer had to dependent of government rationing.

4. MGNREGA complete fiasco and amnesty.

5. Upward migration by Muslims, Biharies, Jatts, Nepalese, Bangladeshis and some individuals without identification.

6. Bride trafficking to Haryana, Delhi, Hyderabad, Punjab and Uttra Pradesh due to incompetency of financial stability and developed a network to foster bride trafficking.

7. Majority of people owing properties from different states.

8. MLA’s are involved in Girls Trafficking.

9. Children’s after completing their 12th working in hotels and restaurants in different parts of country.

10. Still bondage labour.

It usually impinged me from inside, why Uttrakhand seceded from Uttra Pradesh what was the reasons.

In this report I have tried to collect every facet of truth and also have detailed report some coming.

Mohit Pandey

Doon University.